Hygiene and Sanitation Control in Food Businesses
Every process starting from the field or farm, continuing in the production facilities and reaching the final product to the final consumer in different markets or via the service sector, is a part of the food industry. If your business also serves in this huge supply network, hygiene and sanitation inspections will appear in all your applications.
You can reach Aşan Consulting´s expert staff at any time for your questions about all quality management system applications, inspection and certification processes that you may need in the food industry.
What Does Hygiene And Sanitation Mean in Food Businesses?
Hygiene and sanitation are complementary concepts. The term hygiene is commonly used in medical practice and daily life, while the term sanitation is widely used in the food industry.
Hygiene covers the practices that can be called preventive medicine aimed at eliminating and preventing the spread of diseases and is synonymous with the phrase "hifzissihha" (protection of health). In particular, food hygiene is the provision of the necessary conditions at every stage, from the field and farm to the table, for the production of healthy food. Hygiene of an environment or product means that microorganisms in the environment or product are at a level that cannot cause disease.
Derived from the Latin word "sanitas", that is, health, sanitation means the creation of healthy and clean conditions and the perpetuation of this situation. Sanitation for food businesses is the regulation of all processes in a way that does not impair physical, chemical and biological health.
Cleaning and Disinfection in Food Businesses
Disinfection is the process of reducing the number of active and reproducing microorganisms harmful to health to a level that is not harmful to health by physical or chemical means. Disinfection is mandatory for ideal hygiene and sanitation in food establishments, but as a general rule, only clean surfaces can be disinfected.
In the measurements made, it has been seen that 10,000,000 microorganisms live on each square centimeter of dirty surfaces, while this number decreases to 10,000 on clean surfaces. On cleaned and then disinfected surfaces, this figure decreases to 10. In other words, cleaning is necessary but not sufficient for hygiene and sanitation.
Achieving the ideal hygiene standard is an imperative goal for the food industry, so cleaning and disinfection should be seen as components of production. Cleaning and disinfection practices must be linked to written instructions and instructions must be followed completely.
The type of work and food determines the cleaning and disinfection requirements. For example, while high-risk areas of the business should be disinfected regularly, low-risk areas may only be thoroughly cleaned. Cleanliness, which is required at every stage of production, from raw material purchases to the packaging line, is the key element of the HACCP program, especially when it comes to ready-to-eat foods. Although cleaning removes a large number of microorganisms, it is not a process that kills microorganisms. Disinfection is needed to reduce the number of microorganisms to the ideal level.
Disinfection Methods in Food Businesses
1. Thermal disinfection
Steam: Steam is an excellent disinfectant with its ability to carry high heat energy. The biggest advantages of steam application are that it can reach into the pores on the surfaces, does not corrode, is effective against all microbes without exception and does not leave any residue. Unfortunately, steam also has some disadvantages. It may damage some heat-labile materials such as plastic and paint. It removes the oils of the machines. It may pose a hazard to personnel if used incorrectly.
Hot water: Hot water is an effective sanitation method for food contact surfaces and tools. Small parts can also be disinfected by immersion in water at 80°C or higher. In this method, it is necessary to keep the water temperature constant. In disinfection with hot water, the temperature and time should be determined together, because the germicidal effect, which is provided in 15 minutes at 85 oC, can be achieved in 20 minutes at 80 oC. Again, the volume, hardness and flow rate of the water are also factors that can change the effectiveness of an effective disinfection. Disinfection with hot water has the advantages of being non-toxic, inexpensive and convenient, and not requiring drying.
2. Chemical disinfection
Chemical disinfection: It is the sanitation method applied after the cleaning processes in cases where heat treatment cannot be used. Chemical disinfection is a costly method. use in disinfection These chemicals are called disinfectants. Demonstrations and co-design for 2-30 minutes depending on Disinfectants. Reducing disinfectants such as hard water, wooden or plastic floors, knitted, corroded organic excesses, fungi and cotton.
Since diluted disinfectants are lost in 3-4 days, they should be used in 2-3 days, disinfectant worms should be prepared in clean and heat-treated containers. The ideal disinfectant should be able to quickly kill all bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses. In the preparation class of organic matter and soap, it can be in hard water, with different pH effects. It should be able to learn the surface well, and it´s detrimental. It should be odorless or acceptable. It should be in a non-precipitating system or in a stable state. It should be easy to use, easily available and inexpensive. Also, being good should be easy.
3. Radiation/Ultraviolet Disinfection
Radiation/UV: Ultraviolet (UV) rise at a wavelength of about 2500Å, in the form of high-energy cathode red and gamma. Mercury vapor is used obsolete when UV disinfection is small in hospitals. UV is also used in the disinfection of water used in drinking water and food businesses. It can also be applied to packaging materials prior to shipping and filling into the production environment. The dose needed depends on the light and the application time. These applications should be protected from the eyes. It will be very painful to people of microbe-destroying wavelengths.
The wavelength with UV is between 250-260 nm. In this range, the wavelength at which it can be biocidal is 253.7 nm. This wavelength is the wavelength most intensely absorbed by DNA. UV all the little kids.
Requirements for Effective Sanitation in Food Businesses
• Adequate and drinking water: Your water can be microbiological and good. They will be used in case of need, chemical coagulation, nano filtration or reverse liquid making and changing.
• Whole production facility facility: It can be used in food business easy business. It is very important for proper maintenance cleaning. Also the song compilation is routinely about samples for microbiological. It can be designed and cleaned correctly. Water from the production area should be drained from the pond, spilled water tank.
• It should not contaminate the lines to be used for both pressure production and a controllable system. Concerning the use of air in contact with food. The beauty of the air used for cleaning will be mentioned in ISO 2001 and the microbiological analysis method in ISO 2003. Air compressors must be oiled and HEPA filtered. 1-6 bar for air for dry cleaning, 6-8 bar for foam, 1-7 bar for disinfection.
• Steam difficult and dry cleaning visits with sufficient steam. However, steam supplement and machine oils can remove dressing risky. If steam is to be produced, water should be taken from the elderly.
• Sufficient electricity: The electricity coming to the facility must be suitable for the load from the production line and usage. Water channels in electrical channels.
• Hygienic required material: Sanitization can be used, it should be made of durable and easy-to-clean materials, and the material should not be used. Can be disinfected with heat for buckets for stainless. Stainless steel should be ed according to the chemicals used.
Brushes, brooms, scrapers etc. suitable plastic can be used. They do not absorb liquids, are intended for chemicals and can be disinfected with heat.
It can be differentiated from those that are used for use and those that are used differently. Used to take advantage of communication with tell food, check, etc. not those to be used for soles. It should be separated from the color codes according to the risks in different areas from production.
With the color game system, which vehicle material will come, it will be passed by going wrong than planned. With this application, information about business visitors is minimized in terms of living spaces.
The design of the equipment should also improve sanitation. Immersion tanks should be self-draining and for easy cleaning. It provides the best of air from well-maintained air systems and reduces safety concerns.
Check, brush, scraper etc. they should be in one piece possible to achieve the goals of the crafts. Hoses and pipes must be collected automatically.
• chemicals and ready special areas where these chemicals will be stored: The usage areas of each chemical must be up-to-date and its instructions must be followed. In all, the formula of the chemical, its use and storage take place.
It should be clear about the use of cleaning chemicals and a machine. Chemicals should be kept within the entire structure, in lockable containers. The sanitation program should include training for working users. It is necessary to avoid buying from the introduction of chemicals and to use protective protection, clothing, rubber boots, apron.
The storage area should be in a dry and limited area, and it should be fully ventilated. The base must have zero plumbing. Since high temperature and humidity will squeeze your hand from the effectiveness of the chemical, there should be temperature and humidity control in the warehouse. Especially and the chemicals that contain it deteriorate during the daytime. In the cold, however, some dispersal becomes difficult.
• A special cleaning area: This area should be located outside the building and its ventilation should be outdoors. This entrance should not have benefited and its foundation should be inclined towards the accumulation of water.
Stages of the Sanitation Program
1. Practices in production: Personnel should be kept in production", "preed. The fate of big spills should be applied correctly, and it should be known that the remaining wastes will make sanitation difficult.
2. The preparation should be reviewed before the cleaning of agricultural facilities and production, and the parts that should not be touched by water should be closed. If the equipment is to be dismantled, it will be mounted in a high place where it can be installed. All raw materials and packaging materials should be removed from the area or completely closed from water and chemicals.
3. 6 cleanings:
- Rough meadows are removed.
- Pre-play is done.
- Cleaning is done with detergent.
- Second intermediate shaking is done.
- Disinfection process is applied.
- Final shaking is done.
4. In order to complete the sanitary installation and microbial activities, the excess water in the environment must be removed or dried. Thus, it is prevented from reproducing until the shift.
5. After the cleaning equipment: Cleaning equipment should also be cleaned from production, a contaminant will be sent. Also microbial contamination. Also, even though they were clean, they didn´t wait 48 hours. The disinfectant used in the cultivation of cleaning and applied by the disinfectant used in use should be changed every 2 to 4 hours.
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